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Arretez! [Apr. 4th, 2007|03:32 pm]

info from sensory may get distorted when entering LTM
sometimes assumption is what enters LTM
info presented after event could alter memory

<u>Retrieving Info</u>
tip of the tongue phenomenon - failure in retrieval
recalling events with content cues
reconstructing memories, misinformation effect, source monitoring, reality monitoring
retention - proportion of material retianed
recall, recognition, relearning

<i>Why do we forget?</i>
Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve
Why do we forget?
Iineffective encoding
decay theory 
Interference theory
Proactive vs. Reactive

Retroactive Interference - current learning interferes with recall of previously learned material

<u>Trace Decay</u> 
Theory that the passage of time causes forgetfulness
Subjects who sleep after learning something displayed less decay
detained & unable to move expressed less decay
improving memory, elaborate rehearsal, practice and minimize interference, emphasizing sleep, transfer-appropriate processing, mneumonic devices, chunking

Retrieval cues - mood, context, state.

<u>Serial Position Curve</u>
memory process when given a list of words
Word Length effect
easier to remember longer words or shorter?
Word Similarity
same or <b>different</b>?

<u>Physiology of Memory</u>
Biochemistry after synaptic transmission
hormones modulate NT
protein synthesis
Neural Circutry - anterograde and retrograde amnesia
Cereberal Cortex, prefrontal, hippothalymus, cerebellum, amygdala

Retrograde (Trauma) Anterograde amnesia

Diseases with amnesia - Koroakoff's, long term abuse of alcohol, profound retrograde amnesia

Both sides middle of temporal lobe causes declarative anterograde anmesia

Alzheimer's Disease - damage to brain leads to retrograde amnesia

Cognition - higher mental processed, deliberate, knowing
Problem Solving - efforts to develop or choose among various responses in order to attain desired goals
Algorithim - rule that guarantees a solution to a specific problem
Heuristics - simple thinking that allows us to make judgements & solve problems efficiently
Analogy - applying situations that were previously successful with other problems
Metacognition Processing - observing oneself or one's own thought process

<u>How do we make decisions?</u>
Insight & Intuition, sudden realization, coming to a conclusion or making a judgement without concious awareness of the thought process 
Representative Heuristics - stereotyping
Availibility Heuristic - estimating likelyhood of events based on their availability in memory
Overconfidence - tendency to be more confident than correct
Framing - the way an issue is posed
Mental Set - tendency to retain methods tha were successful in the past
Belief-Bias Effect - only accept evidence that conforms
Functional Fixedness - tink of using objects conventionally
Mental States - extreme moods affect the cognitive process 
Personal Beliefs - overeaction because of passion

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Francais Rembrandt [Feb. 14th, 2007|01:17 pm]

Rembrandt était né  15 juillet, 1606; mais l’experts disqutent que il est plus précise dire il était né á 1607. Quand il avait vingt ans il a enseigne dans un studio d’art en Leiden, le Pays Bas. Deux annés apés, une courtisiane découve et parle avec Prince Frederik Hendrik au subject de Rembrandt van Rijn’s peintures. Le prince achetait les peintures de Rembrandt jusqu'à 1646.
Rembrandt a marié la cousine du courtisiane, Saskia van Uylenburg a cause de l’amour. Le deux sont avoir trois enfants, mais seulement un fils survivé. Il s’appele Titus.
Un peu temps avant la mort de Saskia, Rembrandt a fasse du remdez-vous avec sa domestique, Henrickdje. Ils sont avoir une fille, Cornelia.
Rembrandt a mort après tout de sa famille.

Il fait des peintures dûrant l’Age d’Or d’Hollandaise.

Plus de 600 peintures, presque 400 graves de l’eau-fort, et 2,000 schémas.

Á employé chiaroscuro, lumière pour dramatique effet.

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My TV set just keeps it all from being clear [May. 5th, 2006|11:08 am]
[mood |perfect]
[music |If God Will Send His Angels : City of Angels]

Religious Wars of France - (1562 - 1598) 40 years of civil way/ conflicts within states were ususally between Protestants and Catholics; conflicts between states often saw politiccal interest or dynastic rivalries outweigh religious interests
Cause - FRench nobles take adnantage of weak kings and vonbert to calvinism because they want independance; tried to ovethrow king; lack of cental government; tgroups how have rights within state which challenge authotiry of king; turned nobles, towns, churches and kingdoms a against king (Iraq, sSSomalia, Dusan, NI & IRA) feudal rebellion
Weak Central Government Cause - Slow travel; 300 areas with own lagal system; provinces of Brittany, Bugany, Provencal; half FRench nobility Protestant Hugenots; wanted one strong power within every state to maintain law and order; paved way for royal absolutism; monarch's power threatened by calvinism because it undrmines his power; persecute rbels

Post HEnry II - bankdupt; tax system is indufficinet; governments offices sold to raise money, corruption; aristocratic families striggle gor power (Valois, Guisse, Bourbons, MOntmorency)
Catharine tries to relive tneion; reconiciles with rival families
Protestant Maasacres (1562) Duke of Guise kills a Hugenots and starts wars 1563 Henry vows to revenge his father
Jesuits and Hugenots angry
1570 Charles IV reconciles with HEgenots; CAhtarine married Marguerite to Henri of Navarre; Coligny convinces Charles IV to go to war with Spain; 1572 Catharine secretly consents to assassinate Coligny, Charles is convinces that roual power is threatened by Protestant revolt; massacre was a pree emptive strike to protect the CAtholic crown
CAhtolic/Hugenot War - (1572) St BArtholemew's Massacre; in 3 days, 20,000 Protestants killed; Navarre saved; Coligny killed; 1574 Charles IV dies of tuberculosis; the Kike of ALencon dies and Henri of Navarre is the heir; 1576 Henri de Guise establishes CAtholic League; anted to destory CAlvianism in FRance
WAr of the THree Henries - (1576-1578) Henri III vs Henri of Navarre v. Henri of Guise; ended 1589 as King Henri III assassinated by CAtholic man; King Henri de Navarre becomes Henri IV (1589 - 1789); Henri 4 converts to CAtholicism (1593); Calvanists feel betrayed; passed Edict of Nantes (1598); politics more important than religion; gives PRotestants freedom of worship; freedom of press available; Protestanism not allowed in CAtholic towns

England - Minorities have no rihgts; 1st European nation to achieve unity; (1066) Norman invasion; Parliament limits power of crown; 1215 Magna Carta; England Constitution - a set of unwritten and written precedents; lawas & royal acts that came to embody the basic principals of government
Tudor period began with Henry 7 - Elixabeth (1485 - 1603); emerged out og WAr of the Roses (1455 - 1485) Henry 7 (1485 - 1509); strengthened central fovernment and weakened unruly nobility; Henry 8 (1509 - 1577): wstablished Anglican Church; crown head of Church; defreats main obstacle Archdishop THomas CRanmer and became ardent Protestant; regent was Edward SErmour, Duke of Somerset; policital economical and social problems; ; conflicht with Scots and GRance; trade routs change to put ENgland at a disadvantage: need gold and silver; unfavorable balance of trade; religious disunity; argrarian revolts

Irish appealed to Pope Pius IV; Philip concerned that he may furiate Elizabeth; occupied with CAlvanists; Irish neve accept ENglich rule; loyal to faith and IReland
Eng and Spain - courtship with Philip the second leads to 3 years with peace in Spain; SEad dogs terrorized Spanish treasure ships; Philip two outlawed slavery; Bess sold slaves to Spaish traders
England and NEtherlands; Elizabeth supports NEtherlands because she needs un interrupted trade and wants Philip two destracted
English vs Spanish ARmada (1588) - Philip tow wantes to teach Elizabeth a lession; upset because of Bess supporting CAlvanists; imprisons Mary, kills her; dismisses Spanish ambassedor; ENglish piracy
Mary Stuart - CAtholic hopes centered upon her; CAlvanist revolt in Scotland; runs to ENgland, Mary in volved in ...
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The only sound you'll hear [Apr. 25th, 2006|08:05 pm]
[Current Location |Home]
[mood |satisfiedsatisfied]
[music |John Barleycorn : George Jamison]

From wikipedia.org:

Following World War I, Croatia joined the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (comprising what is today, Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia). Shortly thereafter, this joint state in turn formed a union with Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which eventually became Yugoslavia in 1929). Yugoslavia was invaded during World War II and Croatia declared independence and became the Independent State of Croatia. When the Axis powers were defeated, Yugoslavia became a federal socialist state.

Along with Slovenia, Croatia declared her independence from Yugoslavia on June 25, 1991, which triggered the Croatian War of Independence. The Serb population living in border areas of Croatia revolted, supported by the Yugoslav army, and the ensuing months saw combat between various Croatian and Serbian armed forces.

After the Second War of Schleswig (Danish: Slesvig) in 1864 Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity. After this point Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality, as a result of which Denmark stayed neutral in World War I. Following the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the then-German region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism, Denmark refused to consider the return of the area and insisted on a plebiscite concerning the return of Schleswig. On July 10 1920, following the plebiscite and the King´s signature July 9 on the reunion document, Northern Schleswig was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding 163600 inhabitants and 3984 km².The plebiscite February 10 and March 14, 1920 was held according to the Versailles Treaty of June 28, 1919, section XII, articles 109 to 114, and was overseen by a commission with representatives from France, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every year June 15 on Valdemarsdag.

Despite its continued neutrality Denmark was invaded by Germany (Operation Weserübung), on April 9, 1940. Though accorded self-rule (which ended in 1943 due to a mounting resistance movement), Denmark remained militarily occupied throughout World War II. The Danish sympathy for the Allied cause was strong; 1,900 Danish police officers were arrested by the Gestapo and sent, under guard, to be interned in Buchenwald. During the war, Iceland claimed independence and in 1948 the Faroe Islands gained home rule. After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of NATO and, in 1973, joined the European Economic Community (later, the European Union). In 1979, Greenland gained home rule.

The Turkish Republic was established on 29 October 1923 from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne recognized the sovereignty of a new Turkish Republic, Kemal was granted the name Atatürk (meaning father of Turks) by the National Assembly and would become the Republic's first President. Atatürk instituted a wide-range of far reaching reforms with the aim of modernizing the new Republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.

Turkey entered World War II on the Allied side in the latter stages of the war and became a charter member of the United Nations. Difficulties faced by Greece after World War II in quelling a communist rebellion and demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece and resulted in large scale U.S. military and economic support. After participating with United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey in 1952 joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Turkey intervened militarily in Cyprus in 1974 in response to a Greek coup by the militant nationalist group EOKA-B, backed by DISY. the Democratic Rally, which is the current opposition in the Greek Cypriot dominated Republic of Cyprus. The breakaway de-facto independent Northern Cyprus is not officially recognised by any country except Turkey itself.
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(no subject) [Apr. 9th, 2006|08:57 pm]
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Or when the valley's white and flushed with snow [Apr. 2nd, 2006|09:25 pm]
[Current Location |Home]
[mood |draineddrained]
[music |Spancil Hill : Shanon]

Scary title, isn’t it? That’s my senior project as a Neuroscience Major. I had entered college looking forward to a major in Applied Psychology, and maybe taking Neuroscience as a minor. That all changed after I really got to know the subject well. There were just too many fascinating things to learn, and so much left unlearned and unexplored in this relatively new field of science. I heard the pioneer in myself calling, and I listened. But of all my good experience, one negative memory stands out – the pretentiousness of one of my colleagues when I proposed to write an article to the school paper talking about Neuroscience in general. “Neuroscience isn’t a public health issue,” she sneered dismissively. “Besides, a layman wouldn’t understand.” I was shocked. I, once, had been a layman, and I had become (In my opinion) an accelerated Neuroscience student looking forward to a successful researching career. To prove my friend wrong, I set out to write this essay, and explain as accurately and understandably as possible the complex field of neuroscience.

First, a look at the term itself: ‘neuro’ refers to the brain and all functions dealing with the brain; science of course means the field of study. Therefore one may conclude that neuroscience is the study of the structure and function of the nervous system [Cardiff University Research, www.cardiff.ac.uk]. In general, there are two keys to the study of neuroscience. The first is the neuronal circuits within the brain. These are the set paths which signals traveling through the brain take. By studying this, scientist can figure out where signals can be redirected or even stopped. The second is what we call ‘synaptic connections’. Synapses are the junctions between brain cells. Each synapses will interpret a signal differently under different conditions. For example, a signal coming at a certain time during the day may be interpreted as, “I need to go eat.” At another time during the day, it could mean, “I should eat soon, but not now”; and slight variations such as that. [Cardiff University Research, www.cardiff.ac.uk]

In the medical field, the study of neuroscience is either used to actually repair the brain or to use the brain to repair afflictions in the body. When the practice is used to remedy difficulties in brain structure, it is referred to as NNR (the ‘cool’ term for Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair). The medical practices associated with this are mainly but definitely not limited to: stem cell research, to find new cells for brain repair [Dobkin, Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair]; cell transplantation, the process of taking cells from one part of the brain and placing them in a different part of the brain to act in place of lost or damaged cells; and neuroprotection, which are treatments which help protect damaged cells and encourage the growth of newer cells [Cardiff University Research, www.cardiff.ac.uk]. When it is used to help physical disabilities, the common procedure is to try and stimulate a certain part of the brain in an effort to restrict or extend the motion of one part of the body. This is usually achieved by the injection of substances, neurostimulation via electricity, and robotic devices. [Dobkin, Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair].

Now, to further understand the field of Neuroscience, one needs to have at least a basic understanding of brain anatomy. Most people are taught this in health class, but who ever pays attention to that class anyways? I know I certainly never did. We’ll start with the brainstem. This is the lower extension of the brain, which connects with the spinal cord. It’s the pathway for all signals sent to the brain. That alone makes it very important, but the brainstem is even more crucial than you think. It controls all of our base survival functions, such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. Part of the brainstem is a small section called the Medella Oblongata (I love that word, don’t you? My favorite neuroscience word to say. Just rolls off the tongue and never fails to make your audience laugh at its absurdity). This controls involuntary reflexes like gagging, choking, and of our favorite, vomiting. [Johnson, About Brain Injury : A Guide to Brain Anatomy] As I am both a college student and a Neuro-Nerd, I’ve explained this many times to my friends after they’ve had a long night of drinking and are experiencing the aftereffects.

For all of us who complain of having two left feet or boast of the ability to be able to trip on perfectly flat surfaces, we owe this to our Cerebellum and Posterior Cortex. The Cerebellum is located in the back of the brain, and the Posterior Cortex in the Frontal Lobe. Both deal with coordination, balance, and general movement. The Frontal Lobe, obviously, is in the front part of the brain. Generally it is involved in planning, problem solving, attention, behavior, and emotions. In addition to the Posterior Cortex, it also consists of a Prefrontal Cortex. This deals mainly with cognitive functions and personality [Johnson, About Brain Injury : A Guide to Brain Anatomy].

In the back of the brain, there’s a lobe called the Occipital Lobe. This processes simplistic visual information like shapes and colors. The Parietal Lobe deals with the more complex information, like the judgment of texture, weight, and size. It is divided into two separate parts, creatively named the right and left lobes. The Right Lobe is responsible for viso-spacial evaluation (a scientific term for depth perception), and finding your way through familiar places. Written and spoken languages are handled by the Left Lobe. The Parietal Lobe is also partially responsible for direction the five senses and sensory input. However, most of the responsibility in terms of the five senses falls upon the Temporal Lobes. The Temporal Lobes are divided into two separate lobes, right and left (beginning to see a pattern yet?) which are located around the ears. Their jobs are to distinguish sounds and smells from one another and to sort information as it gets processed. Thanks to these two, the thousands of millions of sensory stimulants that go on in everyday life don’t lead to a brain meltdown. Interesting fact : the right lobe of the Temporal Lobe deals with visual information, and the left with verbal [Johnson, About Brain Injury : A Guide to Brain Anatomy]. So the next time you’re being told directions over the phone and don’t have a pen on you, switch the receiver to your left ear – you’ll remember the information better.

Lastly, there is (this is another fun neuroscience word) the Amygdala. This part of our brain’s anatomy controls emotions and our physical reactions to emotions. For example, you can tell when someone is anxious when they breathe harder, their hearts beat faster, they sweat, their pupils dilate, etc. That is the Amygdala at work. Most information retention, or memory, also occurs here, hence the common analogy of the Amygdala being “like a computer”[Janson, That’s Living Too, the Brain and Anxiety]. My professors abuse that expression so much; you almost begin to image a miniature Dell inside your head.

This is all a basic understanding of brain anatomy. What I love most about this subject, however, is that these facts aren’t definite or unshakeable. Studies have been made which give evidence that the Frontal and Temporal lobes are involved in feelings of happiness. The experimentation was made upon an epileptic woman in Japan. The scientists decided to try and ‘map’ her brain by giving selected areas small shocks of electricity and carefully monitoring her reaction. While she was hit in the frontal lobe, the woman said she felt happy. When levels of stimulation were increased, the woman would smile or even laugh. She even noted that she could hear a song from a TV show she watched as a child [Neuroscience for Kids, The Temporal Lobe : Laughing Matter]. Owing to this study, neuroscientists consider the possibility that in addition to being associated with happy feelings, the Frontal and Temporal Lobes might be storage for the memories which are associated with happiness as well. In the medical field, this could prove to be a discovery which would lead to new treatments for depression. But before a drug that stimulates the Frontal and/or Temporal Lobe could be created, the side effects would have to be carefully weighed, the possibility that it may simply revive a happy memory repetitively would have to be considered, and that is farther down the medical road than I as a Neuroscience Major student am permitted to go. Still, imagine what it would be like to see a new drug come out which does use neurostimulation to help victims of chronic depression, and to think to yourself, “ I did research on that!” Right there, that is my goal.

But as undoubtedly inspiring as that little tangent was, I am not writing this about the many medical miracles of neuroscience. That would take far too much time and paper, neither of which I am in abundance of, and anyways I do not believe any mortal would have the patience to read the entire thing even if I did write it. Therefore, I’ve narrowed my focus to three common interests: Alzheimer’s, Autism, and Stroke.

The percentage of people with Alzheimer’s, the frightening memory-loss disease, is sadly on the rise. In response to these growing rates of dementia, neurological studies are constantly striving to find a cure. Most data for these studies is accumulated from autopsies [Lewis, Neuroscience 2005 : Encouragement for Alzheimer's Diagnosis and Treatment]. While this does supply an invaluable amount of information, scientists would rather study Alzheimer's while the patient is still living, and therefore learn about its many stages and its path of progression. The problem with this request is that at the time of diagnosis, nearly a third of the neurons involved in the process are already damaged past repair
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Yes, I am arrogant. In addition to being amazing and beautiful. [Mar. 28th, 2006|12:44 pm]
Europe is, and has been throughout history, a vast and powerful continent. Politically, socially, and resourcefully, it surpassed all others for many centuries. However, during the 19th century, the stability of Europe threatened to fail and overthrow the balance of the entire world. Two men rose, each at different times, to unite, empower, and ultimately alter the future of Europe.

In 1815 the Congress of Vienna was called into session. The goal of this series of meetings was to figure out a procedure for the restoration of France and Europe post-Napoleon. One of the most prominent voices and opinions during this congress was Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein. Hailing from Austria, he was a stiff conservative and reactionary with an intense dislike for nationalism and liberalism. His policies were known as the 'Metternich system': the suppression of liberal and nationalist feelings to avoid revolution, and the brutal downput of any rebellion which might occur otherwise. It was an unpopular belief system among Europe, namely in countries which had just expirienced their first taste of democratic life through Napoleon's expansion efforts. Only Austria officially adopted the system into their governing policies.
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It's always the same, it's just a shame, that's all [Mar. 21st, 2006|10:10 am]
[mood |saddened]
[music |Gravity : Embrace]

It's easy to tell who has lived through war and who has not. Those who haven't speak of war in terms of glory and conradry; of daring fights and near-death expiriences which turn out to be funny in the end. Those who have, never speak of it at all. The impact of their expiriences is to horrific to relive.

Authors have tried to capture the actual feelings of modern warfare, and soldiers have recounted as best they could what truly went on in their minds while playing hide-and-seek with death. Wilfred Owen, the author of the first passage, falls under the former category. His work, a ballad of mostly unrhyming poetry, places the reader in a trench and makes them tremble in the cold while listening to the devastation outside the hole, and always waiting for the worst. His main literary tool is imagery. In his first stanza, the fourth line describes the low sounds of trench life - "Worried by silence, sentries whisper, curious, nervous." He writes of how the soldiers always had to be quiet, silent. Noise meant death, and sometimes even after the warfare was over returning soldiers would wince at loud noises. Quietly, one reads on to line 22: "We crings in holes...deep into grassier ditches." The long hours of crouching in holes, buried in your own fear, is another thing the militants had to undure. Even unconciously one cringes at the mental picture that comes with the line "Slowly our ghosts drag home...with crusted dark-red jewels." No one can really imagine what it's like to see a comrad die, until it happens. In a matter of imagery, the reader expiriences everything a trench life soldier has.

The many elements which haunt the soldiers during their wait are personified in this work. "...the air that shudders black with snow" gives the impression of the air actually shaking, as though it, too, was trying to rid itself of the endless downfall of chilling snowflakes. These snowflakes are indifferent to the soldiers's plight and are apathetic to the agony they are causing. From within the trenches and holes, the falling snow can be seen, "...wandering up and down the wind's nonchalance" as though there weren't a war going on, nor any kind of care in the world. Even later in the passage the snowflakes are personified, this time as though they were strange and uncomforting ghostly fingers. "Pale flakes...come feeling for our faces," says line 21, and every reader involuntarily brushes the imaginary flakes off their own faces. Snow is a constant hazard for the soldiers. It lost its innocent and happy appeal, instead becoming a persistant problem.

Later, the author plays with his words more than he does with their meanings. In line 16, "sudden successive flights of bullets streak the silence, Wilfred Owen uses short and swift alliteration to convery the movement of bullets. The the swift and short pronounciation of "sudden successive" gives the reader an viso-audio expirience of the swiftness and unexpectedness of the bullets. "Streak" and "Silence" add to the consonance in the passage. It almost makes one jump merely to read it - how would it make one feel if it was actual bullets, and one of them might be for you? A little later peace is found in the "...flowing flakes that flock..." Each militant man, crouching in the holes of the earth, had to find solstace somewhere, and some found it in the deadly but beautiful falling of snowflakes.

The second passage, written by Vietnam veteran Tim O'Brien, is an excerpt from his novel. His biggest theme is repetition. "They carried." Over and over that phrase is used, to show the burdens each soldier had to carry. Some carried personal artifacts, some carried the keys to their own survival. But each of them carried one thing or another, be it religious or pleasureful. O'Brien writes of how each of these items became like a pilgrim's staff - a burden to carry on the long pilgrimmage from the beginning to the end of the war. Young boys were worn down and made into weary men by these burdens. All of them transported something different, and none of them ever carried the same object all the way through. As they learned new things, they carried something different; as they lost their innocence they lost the objects they had been carrying before. After Vietnam was over, each soldier carried their memories back into peacetime life.

There is irony, cruel irony, in the second passage as well. The ordinary objects which the soldiers carried, like "...Sterno, safety pins...spools of wire, razor blades, chewing tobacco, statuettes of the smiling Buddha, candles...fingernail clippers..." seem to blatantly contradict the seriousness of the situation. Completely normal objects, which some of us carry around in our purses, are carried around as survival tools by men who are trying to kill and not be killed. It's funny and almost cruel that each day, a militant must open up his pack and see objects that remind him of a life he once lived, no longer lives, and may not last to live it again. Bitterly Tim O'Brien recounts the many things he and his comrads had to carry, and how strangely, without gaining any more weight, they became heavier.

Like Don Quixote's notion of the world and the chivalry involved, some have a strange and misled notion of the nature of war. Only the veterans can tell a true tale of what war is like. And yet, in seeing the effect war has upon them, and reading such devasting combat stories such as these two passages, who would be heartless enough to ask them to recant their expiriences?
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FLF prjet [Mar. 20th, 2006|07:50 pm]

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pacifistically is a new word, invented by moi [Mar. 15th, 2006|08:54 pm]
[mood |stressedstressed]
[music |Abacab : Genesis]

When the industrial revolution was in full swing and had proved that it was there to stay, concerns began to grow over the conditions of the worker. The emanciated, overworked, and underpaid human skeleton became a common symbol for the worker's plight and often an accurate description of most laborers. In the realm of politcs, different theorums as to how these problems could be solved began to rise and take from. Karl Marx proposed a new form of government called communism; social utopians wanted less government interference; and Revisionists agreed with Marx but then disagreed on one crucial arguement. Thus, the stage was set for three very different characters and each of their monologues.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles wrote a book called the COMMUNIST MANIFESTO. Inside the pages o this volume he explained and predicted the natural order of economy. Civilization started with the agrarain society and eventually turned industrial; as Europe had. The next step would be the change of society towards 'communism', a political and economic system in which there was no provate property, no class system, and supplies were equal to all. There was only one group standing in the way of this change: the bourgeoisie. Karl Marx raged against the exploitation of the working-class, called the proletariats, by the burgeois upper middle class. He believed laborers were abused by their managers and overseers both literally and figuratively. Knowing that the middle class would never agree with his communist form of society because it took away their privilege, Marx called for the laborers to unite in fierce loyalty to their class and overthrow the capitalist economy in a bloody revolt. Once the mixed economy was overthrown, the COMMUNIST MANIFESTO outlined a plan for dictatorship to be established initially, until the burgeoisie dissolved from power and being.

Like Marx, the Social Utopians were upset with laissez-faire economics. They agreed and shouted alongside him that the worker was being exploited to make the middle class rich at his expense. But unlike him, they did not advocate a violent revolution or any kind of bloodshed. Instead, they suggested that new communities be formed where everyone lived in a utopian setting. The fruits of labor would be evenly distributed, children would be educated and raised by all parents, and there would be no unfair work hours or exploitations of labor. Robert Owen, in particular, established two societies based on the social utopian ideal. New Lanark in England was an initial sucess, but New Harmony in the U.S. was a complete failure.

Revisionists, named so for their 'revision' of Karl Marx's doctrine, looked at it from a more pacifist point of view. A bloody revolution was unessecessary, they argued. A politcal evolution, which would occur slowly and over time, would eventually bring the worker to a better position in society. The way to achieve this goal was universal male suffrage. As a result of this, workers would recieve the vote and would be able to bring about change in the workplace; such as stronger labor laws, initialize major industries, and a strong welfare state. They campaigned for the formation of Labor Parties, and forsaw correctly that instead of a bloody revolution or an entire rewrite of society, that workers could get what they wanted in the workplace.
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